To be legal, trade union actions in principle presuppose that the union involved has a reasonable professional interest in demanding a collective agreement. This means that the work that the union is trying to regulate by entering into an agreement must fall within the scope of the union. Unlike the European system of collective bargaining, Japanese employers` organisations have never been directly involved in the negotiations. Collective agreements are always concluded at company level between management and company unions (with very rare exceptions such as the seafarers` union). Previously, however, the national employers` organisations played a coordinating role. At the national level, there were four major employers` organizations: (1) the Japan Association of Economic Organizations, which brought together large enterprises; (2) the Japanese employers` organization specializing in work issues of similar composition; 3) Keizai Doyukai was an association of independent (progressive) managers of large companies (it is rare for this association to intervene in labor matters) and 4) The Japan Chamber of Commerce represented medium and small enterprises. In many tripartite bodies, both at national and regional level, it had one seat and one vote for its members (minimum wage councils, industrial tribunals, etc.). In addition, there are generally binding collective agreements. These important agreements also bind unorganized employers and the workers who work for them. .